Most Sought After Biology Notes

Most Sought After Biology Notes

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Thursday, 24 July 2014

Special 100 Days before SPM - What you MUST know about Placenta

Here is the diagram of you 17 years ago:

5 Points you MUST know about Placenta:

1) Q: The content & blood of umbilical artery
A: Waste products & deoxygenated blood (Out of baby --> need to be removed).

2) Q: The content & blood of umbilical vein:
A: Oxygen, nutrients, antibody, & hormones (ONAH) ; oxygenated blood (Into the baby --> something useful).

3) Q: The 2 main function of placenta:
A1: As exchange site between mother & embryo (give example of substances like given above).
A2: Produce oestrogen & progesterone (they maintain thickness of uterine wall throughout pregnancy).

4) Q: Do the blood capillaries of mother & embryo combine together?
A: NO.

5) Q: 3 reasons for this separation between mother & embryo blood capillaries:
A1: Prevent blood mixing that causes blood coagulation if not compatible.
A2: Prevent higher blood pressure of mother damaging the embryo's blood circulation.
A3) Prevent pathogens & toxins from mother entering embryo's blood circulation.


Sunday, 13 July 2014

5 Major Disadvantages of Japanese School Education

We discussed before the benefits of schooling in Japan. As a teacher cum education researcher, we have to see both sides of the coin. Here, we shall see the dark side, starting with...

#1. Overcompetition

We know that Japanese students are generally bright and hardworking. However, having too many bright students going for higher education institutions cause this to happen. Fortunately, they have many institutes to choose from community college to universities. Still, the prestigious universities are much sought after (such as the elite Tokyo University), intensifying the already tough exam competition, just to get admitted. Speaking of exam...

#2. Extremely Exam-Oriented

Japan has a strong Confucian tradition of emphasizing education through discipline. Exam is the way to uphold this tradition. Exam is so prevalent that many school leavers spend most of their time attending cram schools (Juku) just to enter the prestigious universities, as mentioned above. Consequently, the education fails to cater to different students with different ability and learning style. As a result, some students having problem such as...

#3. School-Refusal Syndrome

During the primary school years, it was all fun and happy life due to its child-centered curriculum. However, things changed in secondary school as the curriculum becomes extremely exam-oriented. The stress due to exam anxiety and the parents' high expectation could lead to some students to not attending their schools. Bullying also causes this problem to occur. Speaking about bully...

#4. Bully

We learnt that Japanese students have strong class relation. This interaction sometimes put to the extreme, creating bunch of juvenile delinquents that bully others who are not in their gang. Although the cases decreasing in recent years, the threat is real and has been the source of concern to school administrators...

#5. Too strict 

The administrators and teachers have their fair share in contributing to the previous matters. Corporal punishment such as canning are exerted just because of students are not wearing the right uniform or having the proper haircut. This is prevalent in private secondary schools which have strict codes of conduct.

Here you go about the Japanese education that we always look up to. I wonder if we are lucky here with our relatively easygoing education in Malaysia... It's up to you to ponder, and decide.


Friday, 11 July 2014

Physics Special - Lifting the KLCC

In F4, we learnt the Pascal Principle as stated below:

This principle is applied in basic hydraulic system to lift heavy objects, as shown below:

2 interesting points can be stated here:

a) The liquid is in enclosed (not leaking).
b) The pressure at A and B is similar because the pressure is transmitted equally.

Hence, a small force at A can generate a large force at B. This can be done as long the area at A is super small compare to area at B.

Let's go to the extreme. Let's do this to lift the whole KLCC:

A HOTS/KBAT question can be asked as below:

Cikgu Heery desires to be the first person in the world to lift the whole freakin' KLCC using the hydraulic system. The weight of the building is 3,600,910,000N. How much is the area B needed if the push and area at A is maintained 1N & 1m square?

Here is the calculation:

3600 km square... or 15 TIMES THE AREA OF WHOLE KL (243 km square). Guess I have to kiss my dream goodbye :-(

Still, it was really fun designing this post for you guys. Do take care always, and...


Thursday, 10 July 2014

Chemistry Special - Electroplating the World Cup

Let's take a breather from Biology and onward to Chemistry Form 4. Here, we focus on electroplating on how the trophy is (hypothetically) plated with gold.

The outline for the electroplating process:

Oh, not forgetting the F5s who are now learning the redox thingie...


Tuesday, 8 July 2014

Ney-ghtmare for Neymar - Third Lumbar Vertebrae Injury

The prodigy in pain (credit: Yahoo!Sports)

My all-time favorite team has got its golden boy out of the game. I was a bit shocked. I followed his exploits in Barca and last year FIFA Confederations Cup. He was good back then I expected him to perform in this big game.

Fortunately, he did. Unfortunately, it didn't last long.

Source: Barca Blaugranes 

The vertebrae affected is the third lumbar vertebrae. To be specific, its transverse process. We learnt that it is the site for back muscle attachment. Hence, he's quite lucky because the spinal cord is apparently not injured. His doctor said:

"The CT showed a fractured transverse process at the level of the third lumbar vertebra. That means it's a fracture at the spinal region. It's not a serious fracture that requires surgery, but it limits movements. He will be in pain for a few days, and he's wearing a lumbar belt to manage pain. Unfortunately, he won't be able to play. The first week is the most painful and critical one, so he can't play the last two matches. But long term, we are positive that the recovery will go well. This is a fracture that evolves quickly, so we hope he's completely healed soon."

Since we are here, let's do some revision on the labeling of the vertebrae:

And now the functions:

Hope you get well soon!


Sunday, 6 July 2014

Analyzing Spermato/Oogenesis - What You MUST Know

Here is an example of men/women conflict at the Final...

Let's use this to study what's happen inside them shall we? These are the must-know points...