Most Sought After Biology Notes

Most Sought After Biology Notes

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Saturday, 28 December 2013

Fieldtrip - Importance of Mangrove Swamp (Using 3+3) (REVISITED & UPDATED FOR SPM 2017)

Let's go to the one of popular questions in SPM -mangrove swamp thing!

Question: Discuss the importance of mangrove swamp to the environment & human being.

As usual, we are going to use my trademark PEE system for this question. Here we go!

"The Man and the Mangrove"
The viviparous seed -see the young roots sticking out

Today's Main Points:


1. As a habitat for many animals: (1m)
-for endangered species such as salt-water crocodile & migratory birds. (1m)

2. As a barrier between the sea and land: (1m)
-prevent soil erosion due to wave & wind. (1m)
-prevent soil sediment from entering sea. (1m)
-prevent saltwater from entering river. (1m)

3. As a breeding ground for animals: (1m)
-fishes, crabs & prawns can live because of  shallowness, warm water, & slow current. (1m)


1. As valuable resources: (1m)
-plants as timbers (kayu-kayan) and medicines. (1m)
-fishes as food sources. (1m)

2. As site for scientific research: (1m)
-study ecosystem of mangrove swamp and its connection to world as a whole. (1m)
-study of unique species such as the path of migratory birds. (1m)

3. As site for ecotourism: (1m)
-provide aesthetic value that mangrove swamp is our heritage & must be preserved. (1m)
-for many activities such as boating , snorkeling, bird watching, fishing. (1m)
-examples are the Kuala Selangor Nature Park & Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve. (1m)

Ways to memorize:

1. Group the main points (chunking) and extract the first alphabets:

2. Create a simple yet memorable sentence:

HBB ERR --> "Habeb err...?" --> "Ha, Bieber!"
(ask your teacher to sing/dance/act queer to make it memorable)

Congratulations for mastering this crucial subtopic! Wish you the best of Bio blast for next year's study endeavor :-)
p/s: Onward Towards Success


Tuesday, 24 December 2013

How O2 & CO2 are Carried Around in the Body

1. These are the gases we are talking about in Respiration chapter.

"Hi, I'm O2. This is my useless friend, CO2."

2. This is how O2 is carried:

3. And this is how CO2 is carried:
"We are not oranges & grapes!"
4. These are favorite points for objective questions. How about their %? Start digging :-)


Whimsy Wednesday - The Key

"Give me your attention & I shall give you the future".

Sunday, 22 December 2013

Osmosis MadEasy

Observe the diagram & understand the points of water transport across SPM (semi-permeable membrane). (click diagram to enlarge)

"Wah, kat sana cambest je banyak Milo..."


"14 Milo with 14 water --- 2 Milo with 2 water"

Thus, we can understand that:

1. In osmosis only water molecules that diffuse.
2. It moves from much-water to less-water region. (high water area --> low water area : HILO).
3. Like going down the water slide, it happens without energy (passive transport).
3. Solute (Milo) cannot move because it's too large to pass SPM.
4. It happens until equilibrium (both areas are balanced Milo regions).


Comparing SA & AV Nodes Using 5-3 Points

Here are the 5-3 main differences you must know between SA node & AV node for super-easy comprehension.
"This ball is the Adidas Impulse"


1. Location: right atrium.
2. Function: As pacemaker (perentak(because it initiates impulse transmission) & causes atria to contract. 
3. Send impulse to AV node.
4. No specific means to distribute impulse.
5. Connected to 2 nerves:

a. parasympathetic nerve - reduce heartbeat rate (P for parasympathetic - P for Pelan-pelan...)
b. sympathetic nerve - increase heartbeat rate - (S for sympathetic - S for Speed up)


1. Location: between atria & ventricles
2. Function: receive impulse from SA node & cause ventricles contraction.
3. Have 2 specific means to distribute impulse in ventricles:

a. bundle of His - the "main highway"
b. Purkinje fibre - the "small roads"


Friday, 20 December 2013

The Story of Endoplasmic Reticulums (ER)

Here are the points of ER for easy comprehension:

1. There are 2 ER in cells - rough & smooth. The ribosomes are attached at rough ER.
"This R means Ribosome"
"Ohh... I thought R stands for Rosak Masa Depan Dia."

2. The function of ribosomes are to synthesize proteins. The rough ER will carry the proteins.

3. The function of smooth ER is to do both synthesize & transporting lipids (tough jobs!)
"My life is miserable & I like it."

4. Finally, both proteins & lipids will be send to Golgi apparatus to be further processed/modified & packaged and send them out of the cell.
"The reticulums have arrived. Do you really reti xxxxx?"


Saturday, 14 December 2013

Discover Biology SPM - 31 Most Fascinating Questions To Ask Your Bio Teacher

These are the FAQ by my students about the wonder of Biology SPM. All Bio teachers should know how answer them -scientifically- instead of the discouraging 'only God knows'.  


Chapter 2 & 3 - Cell & Plasma Membrane
1. How life on Earth begins 4 billion years ago? Is it from single cell?
2. Can human cells conduct photosynthesis if chloroplasts are present?
3. Is it true that a cell is more complex than a city? How complex is our cell?
4. What is nanotechnology. How can it be applied on a cellular level?

Chapter 4 & 5 - Biochemicals & Cell Division
5. Can we one day regrow our lost limb/organs?
6. All living things on Earth are DNA-based lifeforms. What kind of lifeforms would be for the aliens?
7. Is human cloning possible?

Chapter 6 - Nutrition
8. Is it true that eating less causes us to live longer? What are the empirical proofs?
9. Can lamp replace sunlight for photosynthesis?

Chapter 7 - Respiration
10. What makes oxygen as the most special gas for respiration?
11. Is it true that exercising too much will cause oxygen toxicity, leading to diseases?

Chapter 8 & 9 - Ecosystem
12. How precise is human evolution?
13. Global Warming - Normal or Catastrophe?
14. "90% of species ever lived on Earth had gone. This is largely due to Darwin's survival of the fittest. Is that normal for us?
15. How was Malaysia during Ice Age?
16. Is it true that human beings are the virus of Earth?
17. We learn the colonization process. We are the dominant species. What about the previous ones? Was it the Neanderthals?


Chapter 1 - Transport
18. Humans have low total surface area per volume (TSA/V). Meaning that humanoid giant is highly improbable because of lower TSA/V. How is that so?

Chapter 2 - Locomotion
19. Like the body of cheetah suitable for quick run, horse for long run, fish for swimming, what would be the most ideal activity for human body judging from its body proportion?

Chapter 3 - Coordination
20. Why human is the most intelligent being? Is it due us having the largest brain volume?
21. AI today having the intelligent of an insect. Can robots one day feel emotions & become self-aware?
22. We act due to memories of past experience and instinct. Does it mean that we are merely a living robot?
23. Plants do not have nervous system. Does it mean that they don't feel any emotion?
24. Thalamus in brain is the centre of our self-awareness. Does it mean that our souls are located there?

Chapter 4 - Reproduction
25. Can we separate XX and XY sperms?
26. Why we don't have mating seasons like the animals?
27. Interestingly, we all started as female in our mothers' uterus due to X-chromosome. Why is that so?
28. We learnt that men & women differ due to testosterone & estrogen. Can I (boy) change my gender (becoming a girl) simply by taking more estrogen pills?
29. Why do men have nipples?

Chapter 5 & 6 - Inheritance & Variation
30. Is it true that mixed-marriages produce more beautiful children due to accumulation of dominant genes?
31. Humans are 98% genetically identical to chimpanzeesHow significant is that?


Friday, 6 December 2013

School Holiday Special - Rodent & Ruminant Nutrition Comparisons

The question in Nutrition chapter would ask you to compare the difference between the nutrition of a rabbit (rodent) and a horse (ruminant). You should provide both similarities & differences. Here is the quick note for your easy memorization.


1. Both are herbivors - plant eaters

2. Both have BP (bacteria & protozoa) - to help digesting plant's cellulose


3. Rodents have long large caecum while ruminants have 4-chambered stomach (name each chamber) and diastema.

4. Ruminants regurgitate and re-chew their food - to fully digest it.

5. And, rodents have their food travel through the alimentary twice - by ingesting their excrement - to fully digest it.


Monday, 2 December 2013

School Holiday Special - 6 Points you MUST know about Amoeba

Amoeba & Paramecium are frequently asked in Paper 2 Section A and B. Here is the points for Amoeba sp. Enjoy :-)



SPM is Over, What Now? - 5 Things to Do

To my 96ers, congratulations for settling the SPM score. Now, enjoy the holiday and have some meaningful fun. But, what specifically can you do with your time? Here I suggest some activities to do while waiting to go for the higher level next year...

1) Find Jobs

The most obvious choice for school leavers. You can easily go to the mall and see the vacation post outside the the shops' lot. You shall gain some working experience and gain a few bucks to eke out your days as the slave in the capitalism world :-p Too bad I didn't work before after SPM...

2) Exercise

Yup, I didn't take any job, but I'd done something more exciting and enjoyable. Back in 1998, I lived in Kuala Terengganu, a cosy place with lush greenery and beautiful beach. I jogged along the Batu Buruk, hiked the Bukit Besar, and cycled the whole town. It was the best thing I'd ever done. It keep myself fit for the college, where I meet my hot ex-gf. It worked really well for me. It will do the same to you :-)

3) Learn New Skills

If you are online 24/7, this is for you. You can learn practical skills such as communication skills or foreign languages or cooking or graphic design. Hell, you simply can learn everything! It's time to upgrade yourself with some new exciting knowledge. Who says upgrading is only for video game characters :-)

4) Travelling

Go outdoors and enjoy the fresh air. Plan a trip with your family and friends. Go balik kampung and discover things you haven't noticed before. Or join any backpacking clubs available online. Discover new places, and liven the experience :-D

5) Socialize - Outside

Yup, the real ones, not via FB/Twitter. Use the time you go hanging out to meet new friends (make sure you are accompanied with mutual buddies). Plan for the four suggestions above. Or take this opportunity to practice the communication skills you've learnt online. To make it more a surprise, volunteer at nearby charity organisations or zoo. The key is to have quality time with yourselves and people around you.

It all boils down to one question - how would like your holiday to by exciting and meaningful? I wish you fun and RESPECTO.

Sunday, 1 December 2013

School Holiday Special - The Story of 3 Sugar Molecules

I guess you know these guys - the simple sugar molecules or the monosaccharides.

When they marry each other, they are known as disaccharides.

a) Glucose lives with another glucose - they are known as
maltose (meaningful marriage)

b) Glucose marries the galactose - they are known as lactose (lame marriage)

c) Finally, glucose may marries the fructose - they are known as
sucrose. (marriage that sucks...)

If you have problem memorizing, just remember GUGUMA, GAGULA & FUGUSU.

GUGUMA = Glu + Glu --> Maltose
GAGULA = Galac. + Glu --> Lactose
FUGUSU = Fruc. + Glu --> Sucrose

Finally, don't forget that these processes release water -since they are married, so much 'water' would be spilled, heheheh ;-p