Most Sought After Biology Notes

Most Sought After Biology Notes

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Wednesday, 30 October 2013

Whimsy Wednesday - Nervous November

Remember adrenaline for fight or flight response? Use this stress hormone to benefit you in this final month preparing for the Big Day :-)


Monday, 21 October 2013

BIOLOGY 2013 FORECAST SERIES 9 - Using TEP Formula for Colonization & Succession

Colonization, an interesting topic we learnt in Dynamic Ecosystem. Here we shall discuss the technique of using TEP to answer the question below:

Q: Discuss the colonization and succession process occur in a pond.

TEP is defined below:

We already know that the colonization & succession series in a porn pond can be divided into 3 categories. These categories are translated into 3 paragraphs in our answer sheet, as described below:


By using the TEP technique, your answer would be perfect, just like below:


  • First, the pioneer species (TERM) such as the submerged plants like Hydrilla (EXAMPLE) is first to inhabit the pond.
  • They are also the first to colonize the pond. (PROCESS 1)
  • Their dead substances would make the pond shallower. (PROCESS 2)
  • This would make the pond not suitable for them. (PROCESS 3)

*Use the same TEP in the following paragraphs...


  • Later, they are succeeded by the successor species such as the floating plants like water lily.
  • Their dead substances also would make the pond shallower.
  • This would make the pond not suitable for them.
  • They are replaces by another successor species such as the emergent plants like common reed (lalang air). 
  • Again, their dead substances would make the pond shallower and completely covered with sediment.
  • Again, this would make the pond not suitable for them.

  • New terrestrial plants such as the shrubs will grow the sediment.
  • Eventually, the forest will be formed and climax community is reached.

-remember that short & concise sentences are sought by the examiners, so our job is to give them what they want for our own sake (full marks).
-so your sentence should be KISS (keep it short and simple).

If you having trouble in remembering the points, just use the TEP as your guidance to answer this type of question.

For this year, it is highly anticipated that the topic regarding colonisation & succession in mangrove swamp might be on the paper. Now, get busy constructing your answer using TEP. If you have time, send to me personally so I can check them.


Friday, 18 October 2013

BIOLOGY 2013 FORECAST SERIES 8 - Homeostasis (O2 & CO2)

Like the role of effectors in responding towards hellish hot & chilling cold stimuli before, now we shall go for the role of effectors in regulating the body in the high altitude & during heavy exercise. 

They have different stimuli, as shown below:

Hence, the questions are these:

Q1: Discuss the role of effectors in regulating the body's amount of O2 in high altitude
Q2: Discuss the role of effectors in regulating the body's amount of CO2 during heavy exercise

Surprisingly, both have the same effectors, which are the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLE and the DIAPHRAGM. (ID)

My freakin' passport ID... damn i was a freakin Taliban...

We learnt before they have different stimuli. But they have the same response. Here is the correct answer scheme:


1. Medulla oblongata (centre of regulation) sends impulses to both intercostal muscle & diaphragm (ID). (2marks)

2. As a result, both increase contraction rate which leads to higher breathing rate. (2marks)

3. Hence, more O2 is inhaled (in high altitude)/ more CO2 is exhaled (during heavy exercise). (1mark).

4. As a result, this would lead to normal level of O2/CO2 in the body. (1mark)



READ CAREFULLY THE QUESTION. If the question asking only about effectors, then only do away with effectors and their response. Do not include receptors as you would spend more time on unnecessary answers. Only include receptors IF THE QUESTIONS ASK YOU SO.

Congratz! You have mastered the spotted Q for this year exam. Now get busy with the other subjects.


Wednesday, 16 October 2013

Teknik Menjawab Soalan for Paper 3 (explain the relationship between..)

Let see these past years' questions in the Paper 3:

...explain the relationship between the rate of amylase activity on starch and the pH values of the mixture solution. (SPM 2011)

...explain the relationship between the time of activity and the percentage of CO2 in the air example (SPM 2010)

---explain the relationship between the rate of photosynthesis and the distance from the bulb (SPM 2009)

Most of my students find out that this is one of the most difficult question to answer in Paper 3. Good, difficulties are fun in disguise. As long I'm the one teaching you. Let me give my personal example...
...explain the relationship between cat's cuteness and the cat's level of happiness (3marks)

Here is the technique:

1. Determine MV & RV
MV - cat's cuteness
RV - cat's happiness

2. Imagine 2 or 3 sequences leading from MV to RV

3. Freaking fill them up! (use theories...)
BOX 1 - receive more attention and love
BOX 2 - given more food
BOX 3 - more playful and healthier

4. Write the complete answer
When the cat is cute (MV), they receive more attention and love from humans (BOX 1). Hence, the cats are given more food regularly (BOX 2). As a result, the cats become more playful and healthier (BOX 3). Ultimately, the cat's level of happiness increases (RV).

As easy as ABC :-)

Now, lets use this technique to apply on the first question (SPM 2011).


1. Determine MV & RV
MV - pH value, RV - rate of amylase activity

2. 3 boxes are identified 
Answers recalled from textbook

3. Fill the boxes
BOX 1 - the ions are concentrated oppositely between enzyme & substrate
BOX 2 - the enzyme and substrate easily attracted to each other
BOX 3 - the substrate can easily changed into product in shorter time.

4. Write the goddam answer.
When the pH value increases or more alkaline (MV), the ions are concentrated oppositely between amylase & starch (BOX 1). This causes amylase and starch easily attracted to each other (BOX 2). Hence, starch  can be easily changed into maltose in shorter time (BOX 3). Ultimately, this increases the rate of amylase activity (RV).

There you go, a freaking FULL SOLID 3 MARKS for this type of question. Pen down. Listen up. Mind these words - see you later in my seminar.


Monday, 14 October 2013

BIOLOGY 2013 FORECAST SERIES 6 - Lymphatic System (PART II)

Lymphatic system is one of the toughest chapter to master in Biology F5. Fortunately, we already covered the first part here. Now we shall continue the 2nd part, study it, conquer it and master it once and for all!


6. Two most abundant components of lymph fluid?
Lipid & Lymphocytes (the 2L).

7. Blood vessels which the interstitial fluid is returned to the bloodstream?
Right & Left subclavian vein.

8. Lymphatic system has no heart. How is the fluid moved?
Via contraction of skeletal muscle - that's why we need to exercise!

9. Lymphatic system part that absorbs lipid in small intestine?

10. 2 diseases, causes & common characteristic?
Oedema - IF cannot return to the bloodstream.
Elephantiasis - lymphatic vessels are blocked by worms.
Common characteristic - SWELLING.


BIOLOGY 2013 FORECAST SERIES 5 - 8 Terms You Must Know in Inheritance Topic

You can't master the Inheritance topics (F5 Chapter 5) if you still cannot comprehend its 8 terms. Let see if you can enkindle your ability to recall these terms below.

The study of passing the characters from one generation to the next

Character : Certain features controlled by the gene (ex. height)
Traits : Specific characters (ex. tall/short)

Mono: Study of one character only
Di: Study of two characters

BUOI - Basic Unit of Inheritance 

The pair of genes in the homologous chromosomes - Tt, GG, Hh, KK, Ll, bb, dd, Ww, HH

Dominant gene: The desirable gene showing its character whenever it exists, showed with capital letters
Recessive gene: The hidden gene only shows its character when dominant gene is absent - in lower-case letters.

Genotype: The 3 coding of gene pairs using alphabets (GG, Gg, gg)
Phenotype: The physical manifestation due to the genotype

Homo: Allele containing similar pair of genes (HH, KK,mm, ee, HH, gg)
Hetero: Allele containing different pair of genes (Hh, Kk, Mm, Ee, Hh, Gg)


Whimsy Wednesday - Know the Difference

"Doctor = docere = to teach"

Whimsy Wednesday - The Beauty of Biology

"This is the simplest biological notion most of us love to forget" - Zulheery aka Zulheinstein

Saturday, 12 October 2013

Whimsy Wednesday - Put Thy Effort

"There is no genius, only effort" - Zulheery aka Zulheinstein

8 Things to Do in 30 days before SPM

I was asked what to do in a month before SPM? Do I have to eat more raisins? Drink more plain water? Go to church/ pray at mosque more? Read more Yassin or Genesis? As a teacher well-crafted in the art of teaching with Master of Education, here is my 8 tips in order to gear up your mass & mind for the big day:

8) Master the Topics
You are given 2 years to study them all. You should be familiar with all of them already. Look into the topic summary for the bird-eye view. Maybe a bit or two like a subject in Mathematics which you can forego like Earth as a Sphere. Ask Mr. Lai more about it.

7) Conduct a Good Study Technique
Spend at least 2 hour daily for revision. Never skip your study. Keep on studying the past years questions. Minimise reading & maximize revising the question sets. This is because the exam ask you what you have done, not what you have read. Study for 45 minutes, then rest for 10-15 minutes. Reward yourself after study by playing your favorite games/ surf the net. 

6) Have Your Own Study Group
Some students prefer to study alone. Some with their peers. If you do, this is for you. Plan a study session discussing about the past years questions or from textbooks. The key here is to find the difficult subtopics & discuss them. Set time and goals of your study session. Rather than studying, most of the study groups would end with talking trivia & gossiping. Avoid them!

5) Tell Your Parents about Your Commitment
As a human being, nothing motivates us more than a positive encouragement & high expectation. You are going to need it. Especially when it comes from your parents. Tell them you are studying hard for the exam. Tell them to treat you well in this one month. Tell them you are doing your very best. And most of all, tell them you love them. Emotions move the world. Use them to move you. 

4) Set Goals
One problem in study is that when you do, you have no idea what's that for. Actually, your study associates deeply with your desire. You might want to become a lawyer, an engineer, a pilot, a doctor. Indeed they all need good education. You might want to become something peculiar like an artist, model, carpenter. Or celebrities. Imagine a very intellectual celebrity! Your education would be your batch - your personal insignia in your adult life. With education, you shall enjoy life to its fullest. 

Simply put, with education, you are on the right track in this awesome journey called life :-)  

3) Study this Blog
Time is limited. You have a few precious time to study. Be my students. Take time to learn from this blog. 

2) Associate Study with Fun
Most of my former students excelled in exam because it was fun to study. You need to have a highly encouraging tutors and parents. For parents i already covered in #5. The fun element should be available in your study environment -home/ your social circle/ school/ tuition centre.

Take me for an example. In my Form 3, i excelled the PMR perfectly due to my positive surrounding - good friends and good teachers from tuition centre. I entered MRSM later. It was a disaster - a place filled with pathetic d*ckheads and mundane, uninspiring teachers. It was no fun at all. 2 years being there was like a couple of years in jail. Still, i obtained mediocre results in SPM :-p  

1) Take Care of Your Body
If you cannot commit to the previous 9, its OK. But you MUST for this one. Your body is the temple of your mind. Good body will keep your mind sharp for the battle ahead.

Exercise every 2 days (everyday is the best) for at least 30 minutes. Exercise brings more O2 as the brain's fuel, a natural stress reliever, natural painkiller, and it eases you to sleep at night. Drink a lot of plain water in the morning and less at night. Don't eat heavily at late night. Sleep before 11am. 

Hope you can apply some. Best to apply them all. Fit them into your schedule. Put the effort. Have fun doing it. Excel. Thank me later.


BIOLOGY 2013 FORECAST SERIES 4 - Homeostasis (Temperature II)

The body response towards icy hell is here. The question would be like this:

Q: Discuss the role of effectors in regulating the body in cold environment/temperature

See the girl above. You can see she's cold. Too bad we are not there to warm her up, oppsss! :-p

Her cute face is pale, creamy as milk...
If you look closer, her body hairs stand, waiting to be caressed...
She is shivering, waiting to be hugged...
Her eyes are wide, as they are fixed upon yours... waiting for your kiss...

Sound like your ideal future girlfriend, am i right boys?

All her four conditions are the effect of effectors in order to keep her warm. Let's discuss them for the SPM...

- undergo VASOCONSTRICTION - blood vessels' size SHRINK - less blood goes to skin - avoid heat release via skin to conserve heat - pale cute face (1m)

- hair stands to entrap a thin layer of heat around skin - keep body warm (1m)

- cause SHIVERING - generate FRICTION in muscles - generate HEAT (1m)

-releasing thyroxine & adrenaline hormones - to INCREASE BODY METABOLISME - generate more body heat - eyes wide open & alert! (1m)

Ice demon is now exorcised. Next, we talk discuss about the heart of Biology (Dynamic Ecosystem & Endangered Ecosystem).


Friday, 11 October 2013

BIOLOGY 2013 FORECAST SERIES 3 - Homeostasis (Temperature)

Homeostasis, which is about the response of the body towards certain stimulus have been a favorite. We discuss the effect of warm temperature to the body for a start. Example of question:

Q: Discuss the role of effectors in regulating the body in warm environment.

The key point here is the effectors, so discuss about the effectors only, nothing more!

Diagram above is a typical human response in a warm climate. She is not horny, she's feeling hot -indeed she is! :-p. OK, let's forego our natural reproductive instinct and focus on the question...

First you need to know what is effectors, which are simply muscles & glands.

So, what the effectors for body response towards warm condition? They are 2 effectors involved, as shown below:

1. SWEAT GLANDS  (1mark)
- release sweat - cool down body when in evaporates. (1mark)

- undergo VASODILATION - blood vessels is ENLARGED - more blood goes to skin - heat is released via skin. (that's why skin becomes red!) (1mark)



There you go for the hot one. Later we go for the icy cold one...


Wednesday, 9 October 2013

HOTTIPS Teknik Menjawab Soalan - Deforestation

If you revise the past year questions, deforestation would be one of the popular FAQ (frequently-asked questions). Let's analysis the question:

Q: What are the effect of deforestation to the environment?

The would affix the diagram of logging/ trees getting cut which shows deforestation.

"You might kill me now. But my children will feast on your body when you die" - Tree

WARNING: Do not confuse the effects of POLLUTION & DEFORESTATION.
Most students explain the effect of deforestation when the question is about pollution, or vice versa. They are different. Right now let's focus on deforestation...

Effects of deforestation to the environment:

- No roots to hold the soil - soil becomes loose (2marks)

- No trees to filter rain - rain easily washes away the fertile top layer (humus) - plants cannot grow. (2marks)

- Soil becomes loose on the highlands - soil collapses. (2marks)

- When raining, washed soil from soil erosion is deposited in the river - river's water level increases. (2marks)

- habitat lose - cause EXTINCTION - give example (tiger, tapir). (2marks)

- less trees to absorb CO2 - too much CO2 absorbs heat in a process called GREEN HOUSE effect - Earth becomes warm - ice in poles melts - sea level rises - causes climate change. (2marks)


Just remember GF D LES - Girlfriend d Lesbian :-p


Mr. Lai's Add Math Snippet

Here is the piece of The God of Math himself, Mr Lai for his Add Math tutelage. This video is 51 minutes - the best 51 minutes you will ever spend in your life as the SPM candidate...

Now, allow yourself to be stroke by his stream of mathematical genius...


BIOLOGY 2013 FORECAST SERIES 1 - Paper 3 Experiment

The forecast (not soalan bocor!) from a reliable source mentioned 3 highly anticipated topics for Paper 3. They are:

- effect of light or temperature
- also effect of light or temperature
- effect of temperature/pH/concentration

again, they are not soalan bocor. thisis not 100% guarantee because the Ministry of Education (MOE) regards the exam questions as highly confidential on par with the military secrets of Area 51. Still, this would be useful for you if you are running out of time for other topics.

Now, get yourself busy. Later we shall discuss on Paper 2 written answers...


Seminars are Fully Booked

I apologize I can't reply most of the SMS. The class is now fully booked. But don't worry, I shall share with you some of the forecast for this year before the Big Day. So stay tuned! :-)

p/s: Some photos from the BAC Seminar are given here. Maybe you guys are here somewhere. Holler at me if you do.

see the keywords? they give you valuable marks for the essay, providing you explain them with proper sentences...

the moment when the sisters separated...

beginning on F5 revision...

"how about you guys..?"

how pathogens release antitoxin...

super-focused students...

"this is my granma, opss... grana which conducts the photolysis..."

have no idea what i was doing...

"copy again, not copy back. if you copy back, you copy then you go back..."

the photographer's pick of the day

was explaining how the chromatin condenses into chromosome...

F4 and here we go!

you have no idea how many cameras were there...

another photographer's pick of the day

come let's go to the front and show these guys how awesome you are