Most Sought After Biology Notes

Most Sought After Biology Notes

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Friday, 19 July 2013

Muscle Antagonistic Actions (Biceps & Triceps)

1. For this SPM subtopic of Locomotion, you need to know 2 things:
  • What is the meaning of muscle antagonistic action (MAA)
  • Comparison between bending and straightening arm
2. MAA means:
  1. Opposite actions of two muscles
  2. Which one contracts & the other relaxes
  3. to initiate limb motion and returning it to original position

3. Bending & Straightening Arm Comparison:

A. Bending Arm (4 points)
  • Biceps contract
  • Triceps relax
  • Arm is pulled upward
  • Arm is raised and bends

B. Straightening Arm (4 points)
  • Biceps relax
  • Triceps contract
  • Arm is pulled downward
  • Arm is lowered and straightened


Thursday, 18 July 2013

Spermatogenesis MadEasy

1. To memorize Spermatogenesis, just remember that sperms are just the tiny version of us -with their own journey of life.

2. Watch the picture below & I'm sure you shall remember it until the Big Day. Goodie luck! ;)

Whimsy Wednesday - Speechless...

Kudos to my bright, future-doctor student who made this :))) 

The Effect of Excessive Fat to Human Health

1. Fat is good for us. In fact, it is used primarily to keep our constantly warm at 37 degree C -the optimum temperature for enzyme activity (refer to my enzyme characteristics note here).

2. Touch yourself and feel the heat thanks to your body fat at work at this very moment.

3. Fat effect associated with being really fat (I mean really fat!) condition called obesity (BMI: >30), which is part of subtopic Malnutrition ( Essay SPM '06,'08,'10).

4. Quite popular SPM question, maybe because of obesity prevalence in Malaysia...

5. According to a local source, Malaysia is the 1st in SEA and 6th in whole Asia for percentage of population with obesity.

6. Well, eating is our favorite pastime, with being boroi is celebrated as sexy and successful :p

7. Enough chat, let's get down to study...

8. 2 things you need to know. First, is...


P1: Having fat-rich meal such as fried food and red meat (examples).

P2: The excessive fat is stored in the adipose tissue under the skin.

P3: This is amplified due to having inactive lifestyle such as lack of exercise and eating high-calorie junk food (examples).

Remember, giving examples is IMPORTANT to get points for essay questions.

Second, is...


D1: Coronary Heart Disease

P1 - Fat and cholesterol (they tend to be together like Romeo & Juliet) deposited in the lumen wall of coronary artery (blood vessel supplying O2 to the heart).  

P2 - This artery would be blocked, so heart would receive less oxygen.
P3 - Cardiac muscle (heart muscle) will die, leading to heart attack.

D2: Stroke

P1 -  Fat and cholesterol deposited in the lumen wall of brain blood vessel.
P2 - This blood vessel harden and burst.

P3 - This would create blood clot that would block O2 to brain cells.

P3 - Brain cells will die, leading to stroke.

D3: High Blood Pressure/ Hypertension

P1 - Fat and cholesterol deposits -> cause blockages -> cause high blood pressure.
P2 - Heart muscles have to work harder to pump blood.
P3 - This would lead to heart failure.

D4: Cancer

P1 - Animal fat is carcinogen
P2 - It causes cancer such as stomach and colon cancer.

D5: Diabetes 

P1 - High amount of fat is correlated to high body glucose level
P2 - This would lead to diabetes

9. Summary for today's lesson...

10. In United States, obesity-linked diseases are the second most common cause of preventable death for adults. In Malaysia, it's the first:

11. So, this is a serious matter. Better lose those fat now, and fast!

Tuesday, 16 July 2013

Bird Adaptation for Flight MadEasy

1. Here is the diagram for bird adaptation for flight (10 points):

2. Don't forget, this is a PE question (Point-Explanation). Example:

A. The aerofoil-shaped wings (point) utilize Bernoulli's Principle in order to generate lift. (explain) 
B. The strong pectoral or chest muscles (point) move the large wings to generate lift. (explain)
C. Bird shape is aerodynamic (point 1) and its feathers are arranged backward (point 2) to reduce air drag (explain)

3. INFO: Look at the highly streamlined peregrine falcon below. The shape resembles B2-Spirit & the bird could reach almost 400km/h -faster than the average speed of F1 car!

4. BONUS: Why the organism below would fly miserably? (99 marks) :)

Monday, 15 July 2013

Teknik Menjawab - Explaining Zones of Cell Growth in Plant

At the shoot & root tips, there are 3 zones of cell growth:
Exam questions would you what are the characteristics of cells in each zone. Here are the answers complete with diagrams:

A. Zone of Cell Division:

1. The meristemic cells are small, have large nucleus, and tightly arranged (1 point).
2. The cells actively conduct mitosis. (1 point).
3. The growth rate is SLOW --> because cells are DIVIDING , not growing... (2 points).

EXTRA: Remember that this area also produces auxin - the love of my life...

B. Zone of Cell Elongation

4. The cells absorb water and nutrient into the vacuole. (1 point).
5. This cause cells to elongate (becomes larger in size and volume) (1 point).
6. Growth rate is FAST --> because cells are indeed GROWING in size and volume (2 points).

C. Zone of Cell Differentiation 

6. The cells would differentiate into specialized cells which form specialized tissues with specific functions such as xylem and phloem (give examples). (2 points)
7. Growth rate is SLOW --> because cells already reached maximum size & volume... (2 points).


Cool Tips to Memorize Mitosis

We did the functions of Mitosis before. Now we go for the process. You know the 4 phases:
  • Prophase (4 points)
  • Metaphase (1 point)
  • Anaphase (2 points)
  • Telophase (4 points) 
Let's go to each phases one by one together with the points allocated:

A. Prophase:

  1. Chromatins -> Chromosomes (process completed)
  2. Nuclear membrane disappears
  3. Spindle fibres appear
  4. Centrioles to opposite poles
B. Metaphase:
  1. Chromosomes 'beratur' align at metaphase plate
C. Anaphase:
  1. Spindle fibres contract.
  2. Sister chromatids separate
D. Telophase:
  1. Cromosomes/chromatids -> Chromatins
  2. Nuclear membrane appears
  3. Spindle fibres disappear
  4. Cytokinesis (process initiated)

EXTRA: Patterns worth noting:
  • Telophase is a reversal to prophase
  • Mitosis located between interphase and cytokinesis:
So, there you go with the Mitosis, just remember the 4124 Formula! Remember them as you would remember your parent's phone number. Goodie luck! ;-)

Friday, 12 July 2013

Whimsy Wednesday - Truth about Chapter 4

"There more it's been omitted, the more it's been abused" - Zulheery aka Zulheinstein

HOTTIPS Teknik Menjawab - 3 Functions of Mitosis

Finally, the note on Mitosis :-) First, you need to know the 3 importances (functions) of Mitosis:

Of course, you need to write in short + complete sentence. Example:

1. Growth - Mitosis increases the number of cells. As a result, it will increase the size and volume of the organism.

2. Cell Repair - New cells from mitosis will replace the cells constantly being old, die, & injured.

3. Asexual Reproduction - This is for microorganism which reproduces using binary fission.

The Development of Embryo Sac in Ovule

Here is 2 quick and easy steps for essay Q:

  1. Divide into 3 sections
  2. Write it up!


1. In ovule, embryo sac mother cell which is diploid conducts meiosis.
2. This forms 4 megaspores which are haploid.


3. 3 of the Megatron megaspores degenerate, leaving only one sole survivor...

4. The remaining megaspore undergoes growth to form an embryo sac.


5. This embryo sac's nucleus undergoes 3 mitosis (1 -> 2 -> 4 -> 8) to form 8 nuclei which are
  • 1 egg
  • 2 polar nuclei
  • 2 synergids
  • 3 antipodals
6. They are waiting the male gametes to have double penetration fertilization :-)