Most Sought After Biology Notes

Most Sought After Biology Notes

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Thursday, 28 February 2013

Clowning the Backbone

Something from Locomotion & Support...

Can you figure out what is this really about? :)

Whimsy Wednesday - Dead BM Teacher

"Knowledge we learn & teach, shall transcend beyond our lifetime..." - Zulheery 

Wednesday, 27 February 2013

Teknik Menjawab Soalan - Operational Definition (UPDATED FOR SPM 2017)

1. Again in Biology SPM Paper 3 Question 1, this operational definition-type (OD) question is one of the most frequently asked by my students. Consider the examples below:

SPM 2008 - State the OD for population of Pleurococcus  sp.
SPM 2009 - State the OD for the photosynthesis process.
SPM 2010 - State the OD for exhaled air.
SPM 2011 - State the OD for the hydrolysis of starch by amylase enzyme.
TRIAL SPM 2016 (MRSM) - State the OD for the population of turtles.

2. To write a perfect OD, you need three sentences. Here is the perfect OD template:

3. Let's use the SPM Trial 2017 to apply the template below:

Population of turtles are determined via number of turtles and marked in second capture (RVDirect). (1m)

This number is different according to three location captured which are Sipadan Island, Upeh Island, and Rantau Abang (MVDirect). (1m)

So, this number is influenced by the location which turtles are captured. (1m)

4. So, just remember two important aspects when answering OD-type questions:

Tuesday, 26 February 2013

10 Points you MUST know about Nutrition

Welcome to OM NOM NOM NOM chapter :-)
Nutrition is the mother chapter for Biology SPM. It's because it is the longest chapter. Nutrition is one single most important chapter which is asked frequently in the SPM examination.  The chapter is long indeed, but questions remain...

"What would be its most crucial subtopics?"  

In my 10 years experience of marking SPM papers, here are the 10 subtopics you should already mastered before the big exam. Pick up your pen and start jotting (in no particular order)

10. Describing defecation process (READ IT HERE)

9. Compare the nutrition between ruminants and rodents (READ IT HERE)

8. Conducting the macronutrient deficiencies (especially nitrogen deficiency) experiment

7. Conducting the bomb calorimeter experiment

6. Determining the Vitamin C content in food samples

5. Testing the presence of non-reducing sugar

4. Describing  the process of fat, carbohydrate & protein digestion and assimilation  (READ IT HERE -protein digestion)

3. Compare the light & dark reaction of photosynthesis

2. Explaining the factors affecting the photosynthesis (& their experiments)

1. Explaining the 5 diseases associated with obesity (READ IT HERE)

Again, they are not arranged according to their particular importance but it helps to know their hierarchy, which we can exploit to answer the goddamn questions. 


The Truth About Human DNA

OH NO..! :)

Monday, 25 February 2013

Crossing Over in Meiosis 1

Something inside us is making moves, forging friendships and telling tales...

Question & Answer Outline:

SPM Question: State the result from process occurred above?

Answer: DNA exchange --> Change of genetic information --> VARIATION OCCURS --> Offspring is unique, different from the parents.

That's why we are different from our parents & siblings :-)


Saturday, 23 February 2013

3 Lines of Body Defense Against Pathogens

Something for the F5...

Life of an Enzyme

Something for the Form 4 and quick revision for the SPM candidates... :)

Can you guys list down 5 features of enzyme based on the comic above?

Thursday, 21 February 2013

10 Points you MUST know about Lymphatic System (PART 1)

Lymphatic System, one of the confusing topic in Bio F5. But it's easy if you frame it into specific concepts, which we can exploit for our study. Hence, these 10 Points are synthesized in order to achieve our terminal behavior regarding this subtopic, and grasp the almighty A+! :)

Wednesday, 20 February 2013

Mitosis & Meiosis MADEASY

Something from the Cell Division class :)

Can you guys state at least 3 differences between mitosis & meiosis based on diagram above? :-)

Whimsy Wednesday - Omitted Dialogue

"Just divide my cell and take away my chromosomes..." -Zulheery

Teknik Menjawab Soalan - Deduce-Type Question

In Biology SPM examination for Paper 3, Question 1, another favorite question is this "Based on the experiment, what can you deduce about...". The word deduce is emphasized, which would be our topic of discussion today. 

That word forms a context of specific reasoning skill known as deductive thinking. According to Prado et al. (2011) based on their article 'The Brain Network for Deductive Reasoning: A Quantitative Meta-analysis of 28 Neuroimaging Studies' released in Journal of Cognitive Neuroscience by Massachusetts Institute of Technology, deductive thinking can be defined as:


To be short, it is a conclusions that is guaranteed because we made based on SOLID EVIDENCES we get while doing experiment in Biology class.

For example, let's use this diagram again :)

Question: Based on the experiment, what can you deduce about photosynthesis?

The answering technique is shown in diagram below:

Let's analyse the question by using the technique above:

1) Deducing what? -------> deducing photosynthesis which is a biochemical process occurs in plant.
2) Cause what? ----------> photosynthesis causes plant to survive in experiment (RV).
3) Influenced by what? ---> photosynthesis is influenced by the presence of sunlight (MV).

Hence, we can write the answer as:
Photosynthesis is a process which causes the plant to survive 
if the sunlight is present. (3m)

We can check the reliability of our answer by stating that the conclusion is CONCRETE DUE TO SOLID EVIDENCE in the experiment.

Congratulations! You just finished another Paper 3 Answering Technique short course. Wish you well in your thinking endeavor :)  

Tuesday, 19 February 2013

Active Transport MADEASY

Here is something for the form 4 Biology students who now studying Transport Across The Najib Razak (PM: Plasma Membrane).

I would like to focus on Active Transport (AT):

Hence, the features of the AT can be concluded into 5 Starman points: 

The opposite features of AT can be applied to Passive Transport. I miss playing Super Mario back in the 90s... :)

Good Luck!

Teknik Menjawab Soalan - Jelaskan Hubungan...

(This is an old entry. The updated version is here)

One of the challenge is to answer the questions which begin with "Explain the relationship between...". This question is a compulsory included in Question 1 in Paper 3 Biology.

Let's see some of the question examples:

1. Explain the relationship between the pepsin reaction rate and albumen concentration (SPM 2006)
2. Explain the relationship between the total number of bubbles and the light intensity (SPM 2007)
3. Explain the relationship between the Pleurococcus population and the light intensity (SPM 2008) 
4. Explain the relationship between the amylase activity rate and the pH value (SPM 2010)

They all carry 3 marks each - a significant allocation of points that could put your result to A or B.
To begin our lesson, observe a diagram below...

Question: Explain the relationship between the condition of plant and the presence of sunlight (UPSR)

I think you can easily solve them. But, the point, what is the correct way in order to gain full 3 marks? Below are the right TWO techniques:

#1: Identify MV and RV.
We can easily identify that:
MV - Presence of sunlight
RV - Condition of Plant (survive or not?)

#2: Put 2 explanations (using theory/keywords) consecutively between the MV & RV.

So, the right answer would be:
-When light is present (MV), 
-the plant is enable to conduct photosynthesis (explain 1). As a  
 result, more glucose can be synthesized (explain 2) to supply food 
 for plant,
-which cause the plant to survive (RV).

Congratulations! You are now pass the Paper 3's Explanation Question short course. I wish to remind you that this is not just for the sake of getting A, but also this can be an act of clarifying with logical precision, which is part of the critical thinking you should master when you enter a much higher level of study. Good luck!

Monday, 18 February 2013

Adakah Komputer akan Ganti Cikgu?

Merujuk kepada hasil kajian Zhang et al. yang berjudul Can E-Learning Replace Classroom Learning yang diterbitkan dalam journal Communications of the ACM keluaran Mei 2004, mereka menimbulkan isu bahawa e-learning yang akan menggantikan pembelajaran tradisional di dalam kelas.

Saya tergerak untuk menulis kerana artikel ini cukup berpengaruh apabila dibaca semasa saya menjalankan kajian kursus di OUM.

Hasil kajian mereka mendapati pelajar yang belajar menerusi e-learning (dengan menggunakan komputer dan internet) didapati mendapat markah lebih tinggi daripada mereka yang belajar secara terus daripada guru.

Mereka memberi kesimpulan yang guru tidak mungkin akan digantikan secara total oleh komputer, tetapi pada masa depan, komputer akan menjadi medium yang penting kepada pembelajaran murid-murid. Guru hanya bertindak sebagai fasilitator di mana mereka hanya menjadi rujukan pelajar.

Dan pembelajaran begini sesuai untuk untuk pendidikan menengah dan ke atas.

Komen saya: Setuju dengan kajian mereka. Tetapi, mungkin lambat lagi untuk Malaysia mencapai tahap sebegini kerana budaya belajar demi ilmu masih bukan rutin sekolah kita. Tetapi boleh diterapkan secara beransur-ansur di peringkat menengah atas. kerana jika diberi komputer tablet seorang satu sekarang kepada murid PMR, guru berbuih mengajar tetapi ada murid yang main game :-p