Most Sought After Biology Notes

Most Sought After Biology Notes

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Saturday, 28 December 2013

Fieldtrip - Importance of Mangrove Swamp (Using 3+3) (REVISITED & UPDATED FOR SPM 2017)

Let's go to the one of popular questions in SPM -mangrove swamp thing!

Question: Discuss the importance of mangrove swamp to the environment & human being.

As usual, we are going to use my trademark PEE system for this question. Here we go!

"The Man and the Mangrove"
The viviparous seed -see the young roots sticking out

Today's Main Points:


1. As a habitat for many animals: (1m)
-for endangered species such as salt-water crocodile & migratory birds. (1m)

2. As a barrier between the sea and land: (1m)
-prevent soil erosion due to wave & wind. (1m)
-prevent soil sediment from entering sea. (1m)
-prevent saltwater from entering river. (1m)

3. As a breeding ground for animals: (1m)
-fishes, crabs & prawns can live because of  shallowness, warm water, & slow current. (1m)


1. As valuable resources: (1m)
-plants as timbers (kayu-kayan) and medicines. (1m)
-fishes as food sources. (1m)

2. As site for scientific research: (1m)
-study ecosystem of mangrove swamp and its connection to world as a whole. (1m)
-study of unique species such as the path of migratory birds. (1m)

3. As site for ecotourism: (1m)
-provide aesthetic value that mangrove swamp is our heritage & must be preserved. (1m)
-for many activities such as boating , snorkeling, bird watching, fishing. (1m)
-examples are the Kuala Selangor Nature Park & Matang Mangrove Forest Reserve. (1m)

Ways to memorize:

1. Group the main points (chunking) and extract the first alphabets:

2. Create a simple yet memorable sentence:

HBB ERR --> "Habeb err...?" --> "Ha, Bieber!"
(ask your teacher to sing/dance/act queer to make it memorable)

Congratulations for mastering this crucial subtopic! Wish you the best of Bio blast for next year's study endeavor :-)
p/s: Onward Towards Success


Tuesday, 24 December 2013

How O2 & CO2 are Carried Around in the Body

1. These are the gases we are talking about in Respiration chapter.

"Hi, I'm O2. This is my useless friend, CO2."

2. This is how O2 is carried:

3. And this is how CO2 is carried:
"We are not oranges & grapes!"
4. These are favorite points for objective questions. How about their %? Start digging :-)


Whimsy Wednesday - The Key

"Give me your attention & I shall give you the future".

Sunday, 22 December 2013

Osmosis MadEasy

Observe the diagram & understand the points of water transport across SPM (semi-permeable membrane). (click diagram to enlarge)

"Wah, kat sana cambest je banyak Milo..."


"14 Milo with 14 water --- 2 Milo with 2 water"

Thus, we can understand that:

1. In osmosis only water molecules that diffuse.
2. It moves from much-water to less-water region. (high water area --> low water area : HILO).
3. Like going down the water slide, it happens without energy (passive transport).
3. Solute (Milo) cannot move because it's too large to pass SPM.
4. It happens until equilibrium (both areas are balanced Milo regions).


Comparing SA & AV Nodes Using 5-3 Points

Here are the 5-3 main differences you must know between SA node & AV node for super-easy comprehension.
"This ball is the Adidas Impulse"


1. Location: right atrium.
2. Function: As pacemaker (perentak(because it initiates impulse transmission) & causes atria to contract. 
3. Send impulse to AV node.
4. No specific means to distribute impulse.
5. Connected to 2 nerves:

a. parasympathetic nerve - reduce heartbeat rate (P for parasympathetic - P for Pelan-pelan...)
b. sympathetic nerve - increase heartbeat rate - (S for sympathetic - S for Speed up)


1. Location: between atria & ventricles
2. Function: receive impulse from SA node & cause ventricles contraction.
3. Have 2 specific means to distribute impulse in ventricles:

a. bundle of His - the "main highway"
b. Purkinje fibre - the "small roads"


Friday, 20 December 2013

The Story of Endoplasmic Reticulums (ER)

Here are the points of ER for easy comprehension:

1. There are 2 ER in cells - rough & smooth. The ribosomes are attached at rough ER.
"This R means Ribosome"
"Ohh... I thought R stands for Rosak Masa Depan Dia."

2. The function of ribosomes are to synthesize proteins. The rough ER will carry the proteins.

3. The function of smooth ER is to do both synthesize & transporting lipids (tough jobs!)
"My life is miserable & I like it."

4. Finally, both proteins & lipids will be send to Golgi apparatus to be further processed/modified & packaged and send them out of the cell.
"The reticulums have arrived. Do you really reti xxxxx?"


Sunday, 15 December 2013

Teknik Menjawab Soalan - Using FADDDDD to Answer Eutrophication Questions

Where Green Lantern goes swimming...

Eutrophication is one of the most famous question for Biology SPM. Here, I give you technique to answer it by using FADDDDD ( 1 F & 5 'D's).

The FADDDDD outline:

The specific question for this FADDDDD would be about the process & consequence of eutrophication. Let's discuss what are the initials in the FADDDDD:

F - Fertilizers
A - Algal bloom
D - Die (submerged plants)
D - Die (aquatic life aka fishes)
D - Die (alga itself!)
D - Decomposition
D - Dead zone

The FADDDDD is favorable as it covers all important points needed for full marks (terms, explanations/processes, & examples - remember PEE system in my previous posts). Below is the example of a good answer from an A-list student:

Q: Discuss the eutrophication process which leads to a high BOD in an ecosystem. 

Answer Outline:

The answer is given full marks (nearly 100%) because it contains these important points:

1. Can you see the red bold words? Those are the important terms (istilah) enlisted as FADDDDD.
2. Can you see the blue bold words? Those are the right examples.
3. Can you see the red-underlined sentences? Those are the correct explanations.

Congratulations for having no more problems on eutrophication! Wish you an awesome Bio blast for the whole year :-)


Saturday, 14 December 2013

Discover Biology SPM - 31 Most Fascinating Questions To Ask Your Bio Teacher

These are the FAQ by my students about the wonder of Biology SPM. All Bio teachers should know how answer them -scientifically- instead of the discouraging 'only God knows'.  


Chapter 2 & 3 - Cell & Plasma Membrane
1. How life on Earth begins 4 billion years ago? Is it from single cell?
2. Can human cells conduct photosynthesis if chloroplasts are present?
3. Is it true that a cell is more complex than a city? How complex is our cell?
4. What is nanotechnology. How can it be applied on a cellular level?

Chapter 4 & 5 - Biochemicals & Cell Division
5. Can we one day regrow our lost limb/organs?
6. All living things on Earth are DNA-based lifeforms. What kind of lifeforms would be for the aliens?
7. Is human cloning possible?

Chapter 6 - Nutrition
8. Is it true that eating less causes us to live longer? What are the empirical proofs?
9. Can lamp replace sunlight for photosynthesis?

Chapter 7 - Respiration
10. What makes oxygen as the most special gas for respiration?
11. Is it true that exercising too much will cause oxygen toxicity, leading to diseases?

Chapter 8 & 9 - Ecosystem
12. How precise is human evolution?
13. Global Warming - Normal or Catastrophe?
14. "90% of species ever lived on Earth had gone. This is largely due to Darwin's survival of the fittest. Is that normal for us?
15. How was Malaysia during Ice Age?
16. Is it true that human beings are the virus of Earth?
17. We learn the colonization process. We are the dominant species. What about the previous ones? Was it the Neanderthals?


Chapter 1 - Transport
18. Humans have low total surface area per volume (TSA/V). Meaning that humanoid giant is highly improbable because of lower TSA/V. How is that so?

Chapter 2 - Locomotion
19. Like the body of cheetah suitable for quick run, horse for long run, fish for swimming, what would be the most ideal activity for human body judging from its body proportion?

Chapter 3 - Coordination
20. Why human is the most intelligent being? Is it due us having the largest brain volume?
21. AI today having the intelligent of an insect. Can robots one day feel emotions & become self-aware?
22. We act due to memories of past experience and instinct. Does it mean that we are merely a living robot?
23. Plants do not have nervous system. Does it mean that they don't feel any emotion?
24. Thalamus in brain is the centre of our self-awareness. Does it mean that our souls are located there?

Chapter 4 - Reproduction
25. Can we separate XX and XY sperms?
26. Why we don't have mating seasons like the animals?
27. Interestingly, we all started as female in our mothers' uterus due to X-chromosome. Why is that so?
28. We learnt that men & women differ due to testosterone & estrogen. Can I (boy) change my gender (becoming a girl) simply by taking more estrogen pills?
29. Why do men have nipples?

Chapter 5 & 6 - Inheritance & Variation
30. Is it true that mixed-marriages produce more beautiful children due to accumulation of dominant genes?
31. Humans are 98% genetically identical to chimpanzeesHow significant is that?


Friday, 6 December 2013

School Holiday Special - Rodent & Ruminant Nutrition Comparisons

The question in Nutrition chapter would ask you to compare the difference between the nutrition of a rabbit (rodent) and a horse (ruminant). You should provide both similarities & differences. Here is the quick note for your easy memorization.


1. Both are herbivors - plant eaters

2. Both have BP (bacteria & protozoa) - to help digesting plant's cellulose


3. Rodents have long large caecum while ruminants have 4-chambered stomach (name each chamber) and diastema.

4. Ruminants regurgitate and re-chew their food - to fully digest it.

5. And, rodents have their food travel through the alimentary twice - by ingesting their excrement - to fully digest it.


Monday, 2 December 2013

School Holiday Special - 6 Points you MUST know about Amoeba

Amoeba & Paramecium are frequently asked in Paper 2 Section A and B. Here is the points for Amoeba sp. Enjoy :-)



SPM is Over, What Now? - 5 Things to Do

To my 96ers, congratulations for settling the SPM score. Now, enjoy the holiday and have some meaningful fun. But, what specifically can you do with your time? Here I suggest some activities to do while waiting to go for the higher level next year...

1) Find Jobs

The most obvious choice for school leavers. You can easily go to the mall and see the vacation post outside the the shops' lot. You shall gain some working experience and gain a few bucks to eke out your days as the slave in the capitalism world :-p Too bad I didn't work before after SPM...

2) Exercise

Yup, I didn't take any job, but I'd done something more exciting and enjoyable. Back in 1998, I lived in Kuala Terengganu, a cosy place with lush greenery and beautiful beach. I jogged along the Batu Buruk, hiked the Bukit Besar, and cycled the whole town. It was the best thing I'd ever done. It keep myself fit for the college, where I meet my hot ex-gf. It worked really well for me. It will do the same to you :-)

3) Learn New Skills

If you are online 24/7, this is for you. You can learn practical skills such as communication skills or foreign languages or cooking or graphic design. Hell, you simply can learn everything! It's time to upgrade yourself with some new exciting knowledge. Who says upgrading is only for video game characters :-)

4) Travelling

Go outdoors and enjoy the fresh air. Plan a trip with your family and friends. Go balik kampung and discover things you haven't noticed before. Or join any backpacking clubs available online. Discover new places, and liven the experience :-D

5) Socialize - Outside

Yup, the real ones, not via FB/Twitter. Use the time you go hanging out to meet new friends (make sure you are accompanied with mutual buddies). Plan for the four suggestions above. Or take this opportunity to practice the communication skills you've learnt online. To make it more a surprise, volunteer at nearby charity organisations or zoo. The key is to have quality time with yourselves and people around you.

It all boils down to one question - how would like your holiday to by exciting and meaningful? I wish you fun and RESPECTO.

Sunday, 1 December 2013

School Holiday Special - The Story of 3 Sugar Molecules

I guess you know these guys - the simple sugar molecules or the monosaccharides.

When they marry each other, they are known as disaccharides.

a) Glucose lives with another glucose - they are known as
maltose (meaningful marriage)

b) Glucose marries the galactose - they are known as lactose (lame marriage)

c) Finally, glucose may marries the fructose - they are known as
sucrose. (marriage that sucks...)

If you have problem memorizing, just remember GUGUMA, GAGULA & FUGUSU.

GUGUMA = Glu + Glu --> Maltose
GAGULA = Galac. + Glu --> Lactose
FUGUSU = Fruc. + Glu --> Sucrose

Finally, don't forget that these processes release water -since they are married, so much 'water' would be spilled, heheheh ;-p


Tuesday, 26 November 2013

This Is It - Tomorrow is the Test

I know that the whole subjects are important for the SPM. But tomorrow is Biology, baby!

the final paper to mark the end of your ordeal.
indeed, it's the seal of the deal.

Go get them. If you get A for Biology, holler at me so I can personally thank you for making this blog the #1 most viewed Biology online learning experience for SPM in Malaysia :-)


Monday, 25 November 2013

Regarding the Soalan Bocor Issue - What Can We Learn From It?

Guru didakwa dalang soalan SPM bocor

1. I posted the nature and consequence of soalan bocor last year. You can read it here.

2. I know both the accusers and the suspect. In fact, I worked with the former. Their respective tuition centres are highly popular in the Setiawangsa area. The competition level between them is notoriously fierce. Worse still, they are located near to each other at the same road.

3. I heard about this soalan bocor since 2007. Hence, the suspect had been divulging for 6 years. Why then, only now the issue is being reported?

4. My students from the accusers' tuition centre shared with me the suspect's tweets. Now I realize the source of this issue.

5. The suspect kept on harassing the accuser's tuition via online.  

6. This is the consequence for having amateur teachers. He might be good in teaching but not in teaching and business ethics. 

7. He should understand that bombarding the competitor using bad words is not a good idea. It carries negative connotation. It reflects on who you really are. In a long term, it shall ruin your reputation and spell the death of your teaching career.

8. Learn from Coke VS Pepsi, Mac VS PC, or McD VS everybody else. They are in constant business tug-of-war, yet they can get along just fine.  

9. It's the job of the costumer to attack your competitor, not you. Focus on your strength. Let the customer do the bashing. 

10. I'm myself a tuition teacher in Cheras with much higher level of competition than Setiawangsa. Instead on condemning other teachers, I take Masters in Education. I polish my drawing skills. I take professional courses. I read books 4 hours daily. All to enhance my teaching professionalism.  

11. All of these go down to one important gist - Avoid documenting your term of abuse. Let this be a lesson to you. 


Saturday, 9 November 2013

INTRO PHYSICS - Archimedes Principle Made Easy

As you know already, I'm a Physics teacher too. I wish to share something about SPM questions regarding Archimedes Principle. Here is the outline - mostly involving two conditions:

1) Same object, different density of medium 

The same object here is the single ship. Let's analyze the question outline:
  • Everything is similar in the Trinity (my term) (weight = buoyancy = water displaced) regardless the medium.
  • Only volume of submerged part is different (the dark-blue part)

2) Different objects, same density of medium 

The objects differ weight. Let's analyze the question outline:
  • The Trinity is SIMILAR in an object (weight = buoyancy = water displaced)
  • The Trinity is DIFFERENT between objects (because of different weight laa...)
  • Of course, the volume of submerged part is different...

Now you can already answer the question regarding Archimedes Principle. Hope to give you more later!


Haemophilia - Tips on Essay Questions

Paper 2 Section B is the most dreaded part of them all. Here is a quick tips on how you are going to tackle them, once and for all! :-)


1) Have flow in your answers
The examiners want to see how good you are in putting down your answers. The key is the flow. That's why you should use A LOT OF CONJUNCTIONS - such as firstly, secondly, after that, besides, subsequently, finally, and so forth...

2) Short & Relevant sentence
Remember KISS? - keep it short and simple. Don't burden the examiner with long and repetitive sentence. Their job is to find points in your answer in order to reward you with marks. Help them out by writing down short and relevant sentence.

  • Short means not more than 10 words per sentence. 
  • Relevant means the sentence should answer the question by delivering at least one keyword with proper description if required (keywords are the terms with bold typeface which you can find in the textbooks)
3) 1 Mark = 1 Sentence
The examiner will find your point through sentence by sentence. So, ONE sentence is all you need to obtain one full mark. So, a 10-marks question means that you have to write at least 10 sentences. You can write more than that if you want to, providing you have the spare time to do so :-)


Remember PDF in Series 10? It is basically the same thing. Let's revise the technique:
  • P(Point) - similar with keywords  
  • D(Description) - describe the keywords
  • F(Full sentence) - short yet concise sentence


Let us analyze the answers:
  • This is a 4-marks questions, which means you should have 4 sentences
  • Can you see the blue circles? Those are the conjunctions :-)
  • Can you see the red circles? Those are the keywords :-)
  • Can you see the red lines? Those are the descriptions for the keywords.


In Paper 2 Section B, all you need to do when answering the question is to...
  • Write one short sentence to get one mark...
  • Make sure you have at least 1 (more is better) keyword in your sentence. 
  • Make sure the keywords are described (if needed).
  • Connect the sentences with conjunctions.

Full mark is rewarded if you follow this rule. Wish you the best in your study endeavour! 


Wednesday, 30 October 2013

Whimsy Wednesday - Nervous November

Remember adrenaline for fight or flight response? Use this stress hormone to benefit you in this final month preparing for the Big Day :-)


Monday, 21 October 2013

BIOLOGY 2013 FORECAST SERIES 9 - Using TEP Formula for Colonization & Succession

Colonization, an interesting topic we learnt in Dynamic Ecosystem. Here we shall discuss the technique of using TEP to answer the question below:

Q: Discuss the colonization and succession process occur in a pond.

TEP is defined below:

We already know that the colonization & succession series in a porn pond can be divided into 3 categories. These categories are translated into 3 paragraphs in our answer sheet, as described below:


By using the TEP technique, your answer would be perfect, just like below:


  • First, the pioneer species (TERM) such as the submerged plants like Hydrilla (EXAMPLE) is first to inhabit the pond.
  • They are also the first to colonize the pond. (PROCESS 1)
  • Their dead substances would make the pond shallower. (PROCESS 2)
  • This would make the pond not suitable for them. (PROCESS 3)

*Use the same TEP in the following paragraphs...


  • Later, they are succeeded by the successor species such as the floating plants like water lily.
  • Their dead substances also would make the pond shallower.
  • This would make the pond not suitable for them.
  • They are replaces by another successor species such as the emergent plants like common reed (lalang air). 
  • Again, their dead substances would make the pond shallower and completely covered with sediment.
  • Again, this would make the pond not suitable for them.

  • New terrestrial plants such as the shrubs will grow the sediment.
  • Eventually, the forest will be formed and climax community is reached.

-remember that short & concise sentences are sought by the examiners, so our job is to give them what they want for our own sake (full marks).
-so your sentence should be KISS (keep it short and simple).

If you having trouble in remembering the points, just use the TEP as your guidance to answer this type of question.

For this year, it is highly anticipated that the topic regarding colonisation & succession in mangrove swamp might be on the paper. Now, get busy constructing your answer using TEP. If you have time, send to me personally so I can check them.


Friday, 18 October 2013

BIOLOGY 2013 FORECAST SERIES 8 - Homeostasis (O2 & CO2)

Like the role of effectors in responding towards hellish hot & chilling cold stimuli before, now we shall go for the role of effectors in regulating the body in the high altitude & during heavy exercise. 

They have different stimuli, as shown below:

Hence, the questions are these:

Q1: Discuss the role of effectors in regulating the body's amount of O2 in high altitude
Q2: Discuss the role of effectors in regulating the body's amount of CO2 during heavy exercise

Surprisingly, both have the same effectors, which are the INTERCOSTAL MUSCLE and the DIAPHRAGM. (ID)

My freakin' passport ID... damn i was a freakin Taliban...

We learnt before they have different stimuli. But they have the same response. Here is the correct answer scheme:


1. Medulla oblongata (centre of regulation) sends impulses to both intercostal muscle & diaphragm (ID). (2marks)

2. As a result, both increase contraction rate which leads to higher breathing rate. (2marks)

3. Hence, more O2 is inhaled (in high altitude)/ more CO2 is exhaled (during heavy exercise). (1mark).

4. As a result, this would lead to normal level of O2/CO2 in the body. (1mark)



READ CAREFULLY THE QUESTION. If the question asking only about effectors, then only do away with effectors and their response. Do not include receptors as you would spend more time on unnecessary answers. Only include receptors IF THE QUESTIONS ASK YOU SO.

Congratz! You have mastered the spotted Q for this year exam. Now get busy with the other subjects.


Wednesday, 16 October 2013

Teknik Menjawab Soalan for Paper 3 (explain the relationship between..)

Let see these past years' questions in the Paper 3:

...explain the relationship between the rate of amylase activity on starch and the pH values of the mixture solution. (SPM 2011)

...explain the relationship between the time of activity and the percentage of CO2 in the air example (SPM 2010)

---explain the relationship between the rate of photosynthesis and the distance from the bulb (SPM 2009)

Most of my students find out that this is one of the most difficult question to answer in Paper 3. Good, difficulties are fun in disguise. As long I'm the one teaching you. Let me give my personal example...
...explain the relationship between cat's cuteness and the cat's level of happiness (3marks)

Here is the technique:

1. Determine MV & RV
MV - cat's cuteness
RV - cat's happiness

2. Imagine 2 or 3 sequences leading from MV to RV

3. Freaking fill them up! (use theories...)
BOX 1 - receive more attention and love
BOX 2 - given more food
BOX 3 - more playful and healthier

4. Write the complete answer
When the cat is cute (MV), they receive more attention and love from humans (BOX 1). Hence, the cats are given more food regularly (BOX 2). As a result, the cats become more playful and healthier (BOX 3). Ultimately, the cat's level of happiness increases (RV).

As easy as ABC :-)

Now, lets use this technique to apply on the first question (SPM 2011).


1. Determine MV & RV
MV - pH value, RV - rate of amylase activity

2. 3 boxes are identified 
Answers recalled from textbook

3. Fill the boxes
BOX 1 - the ions are concentrated oppositely between enzyme & substrate
BOX 2 - the enzyme and substrate easily attracted to each other
BOX 3 - the substrate can easily changed into product in shorter time.

4. Write the goddam answer.
When the pH value increases or more alkaline (MV), the ions are concentrated oppositely between amylase & starch (BOX 1). This causes amylase and starch easily attracted to each other (BOX 2). Hence, starch  can be easily changed into maltose in shorter time (BOX 3). Ultimately, this increases the rate of amylase activity (RV).

There you go, a freaking FULL SOLID 3 MARKS for this type of question. Pen down. Listen up. Mind these words - see you later in my seminar.


Monday, 14 October 2013

BIOLOGY 2013 FORECAST SERIES 6 - Lymphatic System (PART II)

Lymphatic system is one of the toughest chapter to master in Biology F5. Fortunately, we already covered the first part here. Now we shall continue the 2nd part, study it, conquer it and master it once and for all!


6. Two most abundant components of lymph fluid?
Lipid & Lymphocytes (the 2L).

7. Blood vessels which the interstitial fluid is returned to the bloodstream?
Right & Left subclavian vein.

8. Lymphatic system has no heart. How is the fluid moved?
Via contraction of skeletal muscle - that's why we need to exercise!

9. Lymphatic system part that absorbs lipid in small intestine?

10. 2 diseases, causes & common characteristic?
Oedema - IF cannot return to the bloodstream.
Elephantiasis - lymphatic vessels are blocked by worms.
Common characteristic - SWELLING.


BIOLOGY 2013 FORECAST SERIES 5 - 8 Terms You Must Know in Inheritance Topic

You can't master the Inheritance topics (F5 Chapter 5) if you still cannot comprehend its 8 terms. Let see if you can enkindle your ability to recall these terms below.

The study of passing the characters from one generation to the next

Character : Certain features controlled by the gene (ex. height)
Traits : Specific characters (ex. tall/short)

Mono: Study of one character only
Di: Study of two characters

BUOI - Basic Unit of Inheritance 

The pair of genes in the homologous chromosomes - Tt, GG, Hh, KK, Ll, bb, dd, Ww, HH

Dominant gene: The desirable gene showing its character whenever it exists, showed with capital letters
Recessive gene: The hidden gene only shows its character when dominant gene is absent - in lower-case letters.

Genotype: The 3 coding of gene pairs using alphabets (GG, Gg, gg)
Phenotype: The physical manifestation due to the genotype

Homo: Allele containing similar pair of genes (HH, KK,mm, ee, HH, gg)
Hetero: Allele containing different pair of genes (Hh, Kk, Mm, Ee, Hh, Gg)


Whimsy Wednesday - Know the Difference

"Doctor = docere = to teach"